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Underwater Sensor Network Simulations in ns-2 using Aqua-Sim

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This post describes a step-by-step procedure to simulate "Underwater Sensor Networks" in ns-2 by using Aqua-Sim tool [1]. Some of the outstanding features of Aqua-Sim are [2]:

1. Simulates acoustic signal attenuation and packet collisions in underwater sensor networks.
2. Supports 3D deployment.
3. Can be easily integrated with existing codes of ns-2.
4. Independent of CMU wireless simulation package of ns-2.
5. Changes in either of them do not affect the other packages.

NOTE: 
1. You do not need to have ns-2 pre-installed to work with Aqua-Sim.
2. Aqua-Sim tool is distributed as a *tarball* rather than a *patch* [2].
3. Aqua-Sim tarball = Original ns-2.30 tarball + Aqua-Sim Source Codes.
4. Installing the *tarball* distributed by Aqua-Sim developers is enough.
5. Source code for 3D deployment is not distributed inside the above mentioned tarball.
6. For 3D deployment, separate tarball called *Aqua-3D* is distributed [3].
7. First, this post explains the installation of Aqua-Sim tarball.
8. Secondly, this post explains the installation of Aqua-3D.

Follow the steps given below to install Aqua-Sim:

1. Download Aqua-Sim-1.0.tgz

2. Unzip Aqua-Sim-1.0.tgz. You will get a folder named Aqua-Sim-1.0

3. Give the following command:

./install

4. If you get error in *otcl* installation, then go to the following folder:

Aqua-Sim-1.0/otcl-1.12

and then open the *configure* file. Go to line number 5516 and replace

ld -shared

by

gcc -shared

then go back to Aqua-Sim-1.0 folder via terminal and try to re-install Aqua-Sim by giving the following command:

./install

5. You may or may not get further errors depending on the gcc version of your Linux flavor.

6. Once the installation is completed, go to following directory:

Aqua-Sim-1.0/ns-2.30

and give the following command (NOTE: this command requires *root* access):

make install 

7. Verify whether Aqua-Sim is installed successfully or not by going to the following folder:

Aqua-Sim-1.0/ns-2.30/underwatersensor/uw_tcl

and give the following command

ns vbf_example_5.tcl

If the above TCL Script works fine, Aqua-Sim has installed successfully!

Otherwise, please feel free to report the errors that you get during the installation procedure.

Following are the steps to install Aqua-3D:

1. Download Aqua3d-1.0.0-src.tgz

2. Depending on your Linux flavor, install the packages listed on the following link, before proceeding for installation:

http://obinet.engr.uconn.edu/wiki/index.php/Aqua-3D#Requirements

3. Unzip Aqua3d-1.0.0-src.tgz. You will get a folder named aqua3d-1.0.0-src

4. Go in aqua3d-1.0.0-src folder via terminal and give the following command:

make

5. If all packages were properly installed during Step 2, you will get a exectuable named *aqua3d* in aqua3d-1.0.0-src folder. Try running it by giving the following command;

./aqua3d

or just *double click* on aqua3d.

6. New window, like the one shown below, will open:

                                                          [Click on the image to enlarge]

7. Aqua-Sim takes *.nam* files as input. A Sample .nam file called *vbva.nam* is provided in the following folder:

aqua3d-1.0.0-src/trace_example

8. Using the *File -> Open Trace (no options)* option in the window shown above, open vbva.nam. A new window, as shown below, would open:

                                                         [Click on the image to enlarge]

9. Alternatively, you can also open the same file with *File -> Open Trace (with options)*

A very detailed and clear information about Aqua-Sim's features, architecture, support of routing protocols and mac protocols, mailing lists,  etc is provided on the following link:


A very clear and basic tutorial (contains explanation of the TCL scripts corresponding to Aqua-Sim) is available on the following link:


References / Acknowledgements:

[1] "Aqua-Sim 2: An NS-2 Based Simulator for Underwater Sensor Networks", Yibo Zhu, Xiaoyan Lu, Lina Pu, Yishan Su, Robert Martin, Michael Zuba, Zheng Peng and and Jun-Hong Cui, in Proc. of ACM WUWNet, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2013.

[2] Official webpage of Aqua-Sim: http://obinet.engr.uconn.edu/wiki/index.php/Aqua-Sim

[3] Official webpage of Aqua-3D: http://obinet.engr.uconn.edu/wiki/index.php/Aqua-3D

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

Blackhole Attack in ns-2

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The patch provided in this post enables a ns-2 user to simulate "Blackhole Attack in ns-2" for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) Simulations. Blackhole attack has been implemented using Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol. As of now the patch will only work on ns-2.35 version! Patches for older versions of ns-2 will be provided soon.

Material provided with this post:

1. A patch to simulate Blackhole attack in ns-2.35 and steps to apply that patch.
2. Sample TCL script to demonstrate how to configure a malicious nodes.
3. AWK Script that calculates Packet Delivery Ratio (to confirm whether the code really works!)

Follow the steps given below to apply Blackhole patch to ns-2.35:

1. Download ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz

2. Download Blackhole.patch

3. Unzip ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz. You will get a folder named ns-allinone-2.35

4. Paste the downloaded Blackhole patch in the above mentioned folder.

5. Give the following command:

patch -p1 -t < Blackhole.patch

6. Go in ns-allinone-2.35 via terminal and give the following command (It is always recommended to be in root mode while giving the below command):

./install

If you already have an installed copy of ns-allinone-2.35, then follow the steps given below to apply the Blackhole patch:

1. Paste the downloaded Blackhole patch in ns-allinone-2.35 directory.

2. Give the following command:

patch -p1 -t < Blackhole.patch

3. Go in ns-allinone-2.35/ns-2.35 directory and give the following commands:

./configure
make clean
make
make install

You are done with it!

Sample TCL Script and AWK Script to verify the working of Blackhole Patch:

Download blackhole.tcl and pdf.awk from the links given below and keep them in the same folder:

blackhole.tcl

pdf.awk

How to use these files for verification?

I. Open blackhole.tcl and comment the following line (remember: # is used for commenting)

$ns at 0.0 "[$n5 set ragent_] hacker"

$n5 in the above line represents node 5. The word "hacker" has been used to represent "attacker". You may try making any other node as an hacker also. 

0.0 in the above line indicates that from beginning of the simulation itself, node 5 acts an attacker in the network. Blackhole attack is mainly launched during the Route Establishment phase and hence it is important to configure a node to be an attacker from the beginning of the simulation.

We comment the above line so that we can first analyze the behavior of a normal network without Blackhole attack. At a later point, we will uncomment this line and analyze the behavior of the network when it is attacked by node 5.

II. Run blackhole.tcl by giving the following command:

ns blackhole.tcl

III. Give the following command to run the pdf.awk and note down the results:

awk -f pdf.awk blackhole.tr

IV. Open blackhole.tcl again and uncomment the line which you commented earlier (i.e., this time the attacker will attack the network)

V. Run blackhole.tcl by using the same command as mentioned in Step II.

VI. Note down new results by running the pdf.awk as mentioned in Step III.

You would observe that none of the packets are delivered and ratio turns out to be zero.

You can also verify the working of the patch by observing packet drops in NAM window. Here is one snapshot which shows the same:

[Click on the Image to enlarge]

Acknowledgements: 

1. Thanks to E. Talipov's link: http://elmurod.net/en/index.php/archives/196 using which a major part of the patch has been designed.

2. Thanks to Gaurav Gupta for designing the sample TCL script named "blackhole.tcl" and also for his assistance in shaping up this patch.

3. Thanks to Knud F. L. for his crucial feedback on the design of the patch.

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

CoDel's patch for ns-2.31 (to support TCP Evaluation Suite)

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Controlled Delay (CoDel) is a newly proposed AQM mechanism developed by Kathleen Nichols and Van Jacobson. CoDel is parameterless and controls the delay, while insensitive to round-trip delays, link rates, and traffic loads. CoDel's patch is originally designed for ns-2.35. The patch for ns-2.35, instructions for download and trying the sample TCL codes are available at the following link: http://www.pollere.net/CoDel.html

This patch is a slight modification of the original patch and is designed for ns-2.31, mainly to be used along with TCP Evaluation Suite, which is available for ns-2.31 only. However, you can also use it without the TCP Evaluation Suite. 

TCP Evaluation Suite is a standard tool used for the analysis of newly proposed TCP Variants, especially High-Speed TCP Variants. The simulation code of TCP Evaluation Suite is based on original Linux TCP Code. 

CoDel's ns-2.31 patch is designed mainly to assist the community to analyze the interaction of CoDel with existing TCP Variants while using TCP Evaluation Suite.

Contributed by: Dipesh Raghuvanshi

Following are the steps to be followed to apply given patch to ns-2.31:

1. Download ns-allinone-2.31.tar.gz

2. Download CoDel-ns-2.31.patch

3. Unzip ns-allinone-2.31.tar.gz. You will get a folder named ns-allinone-2.31

4. Paste the downloaded patch in this folder.

5. Give the following command:

    patch -p1 > CoDel-ns-2.31.patch

6. Then give ./install

If you already have an installed copy of ns-allinone-2.31, then follow the steps given below to apply the CoDel patch:

1. Paste the downloaded patch in ns-allinone-2.31 folder.

2. Give the following command:

    patch -p1 > CoDel-ns-2.31.patch

3. Go in ns-allinone-2.31/ns-2.31 directory.

4. Give the following commands:

    ./configure

    make clean

    make

    make install

You are done with it!

To verify the working of this patch, an example TCL Script named "codel.tcl" will now be available in ns-allione-2.31/ns-2.31 directory.

Go in ns-allinone-2.31/ns-2.31 directory and run the file by giving: ns codel.tcl

If you encounter any problem in downloading the patch from the link given above, please follow this link:


Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

Rate Control Protocol (RCP) Patch for ns-2.35

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Rate Control Protocol (RCP) is a congestion control mechanism which focuses on minimizing the flow-completion time. It is designed and developed by Nandita Dukkipati, a Ph.D Student then, at Stanford University. Following is a link to the official page of RCP:

http://yuba.stanford.edu/rcp/

RCP's patch for ns-2 is available on the above link for ns-2.28 and ns-2.30 versions. Since installation procedure of these ns-2 versions on present Linux flavors hinders several researchers, I developed a RCP patch for ns-2.35 which is the latest version.

Follow the steps given below to apply RCP's patch to ns-2.35:

1. Download ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz

2. Download rcp-ns2-35.patch

3. Unzip ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz. You will get a folder named ns-allinone-2.35

4. Paste the downloaded RCP patch in the above mentioned folder.

5. Give the following command:

patch -p1 < rcp-ns2-35.patch

6. Go in ns-allinone-2.35 via terminal and give the following command (It is always recommended to be in root mode while giving the below command):

./install

If you already have an installed copy of ns-allinone-2.35, then follow the steps given below to apply the RCP patch:

1. Paste the downloaded RCP patch in ns-allinone-2.35 directory.

2. Give the following command:

patch -p1 < rcp-ns2-35.patch

3. Go in ns-allinone-2.35/ns-2.35 directory and give the following commands:

./configure
make clean
make
make install

You are done with it!

Sample TCL Scripts:
Use the sample TCL Scripts provided on the official website of RCP. Following is the link:

http://yuba.stanford.edu/rcp/#implementation

rcp-ns-2.30.tar.gz must be downloaded from the above link. It contains a folder named "example-tcl-files" which contains the sample TCL Scripts.

A Note on the installation of ns-allinone-2.35:
You may or may not get installation errors depending on which version of gcc is used in your OS. With Ubuntu 10.04 (gcc 4.4.3), the installation procedure did not give any error. However, with later versions of Ubuntu there are chances that you may get a few errors. If you do not find a solution for those errors, report it in the Comments section.

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

Refined Adaptive RED (Re-ARED or RARED) patch for NS-2

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Adaptive Random Early Detection (ARED) proposed by S. Floyd in 2001 solves most of the issues related to the parameter sensitivity of RED. ARED adaptively varies "Maximum drop probability" and automatically sets other parameters of RED. 

Refined Adaptive RED (Re-ARED or RARED) proposed by T.-H. Kim and K.-H. Lee modifies the ARED's approach of varying "Maximum drop probability". Re-ARED attempts to bring the average queue size closer to the target range more quickly as compared to ARED. As a result, it minimizes packet drop rate and improves the overall performance of the network.

Reference: "Refined Adaptive RED in TCP/IP Networks", Tae-Hoon Kim and Kee-Hyun Lee, SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference, pp. 3722-3725 (2006).

The following patch provides implementation of Re-ARED (or RARED) in NS-2:



Following are the steps to be followed to apply above given patch to ns-2.34:

1. Download ns-allinone-2.34.tar.gz 

2. Download Re-ARED.patch

3. Unzip ns-allinone-2.34.tar.gz. You will get a folder named ns-allinone-2.34.

4. Paste the downloaded patch in this folder.

5. Give the following command: 

    patch -p1 < Re-ARED.patch

6. Then give ./install

If you have already installed copy of ns-allinone-2.34 then follow the below given steps to apply Re-ARED patch

1. Paste the downloaded patch in ns-allinone-2.34 folder.

2. Give the following command: 

    patch -p1 < Re-ARED.patch

3. Go in ns-allinone-2.34/ns-2.34 directory and give the following commands: 

    ./configure
    make clean
    make
    make install

You are done with it!

TCL Commands:

Please read this post before getting started with Re-ARED simulation in NS-2 "Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1"

To simulate Re-ARED, you need to ensure that following two lines are added in the TCL Script:

Queue/RED set adaptive_ 1
Queue/RED set refined_adaptive_ 1 

Rest all commands remain same as explained in "Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1".

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

Related Blogs:

Nonlinear RED (NLRED) patch for NS-2

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Random Early Detection (RED) proposed by S. Floyd and V. Jacobson in 1993 is one of the widely deployed Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanisms. However, due to its parameter sensitivity, lot of variants of RED have been proposed. Nonlinear RED (NLRED) is one such variant of RED. 

Reference: "Nonlinear RED: A simple yet efficient active queue management scheme", Kaiyu Zhou, Kwan L. Yeung, Victor O. K. Li, Elsevier Journal of Computer Networks, 50, pp. 3784-3794 (2006). 

The packet drop probability in RED is a linear function of the "average queue size". NLRED modifies the packet drop probability to be a quadratic function (and hence nonlinear function) of the "average queue size" so as to minimize the overall packet drop rate in the network. NLRED is not implemented in the allinone package of NS-2. The following patch provides the implementation of NLRED in NS-2.

Download NLRED patch for NS-2 

Following are the steps to be followed to apply above given patch to ns-2.34:

1. Download ns-allinone-2.34.tar.gz 

2. Download NLRED.patch

3. Unzip ns-allinone-2.34.tar.gz. You will get a folder named ns-allinone-2.34.

4. Paste the downloaded patch in this folder.

5. Give the following command: 

    patch -p1 < NLRED.patch

6. Then give ./install

If you have already installed copy of ns-allinone-2.34 then follow the below given steps to apply NLRED patch

1. Paste the downloaded patch in ns-allinone-2.34 folder.

2. Give the following command: 

    patch -p1 < NLRED.patch

3. Go in ns-allinone-2.34/ns-2.34 directory and give the following commands: 

    ./configure
    make clean
    make
    make install

You are done with it!

TCL Commands:

Please read this post before getting started with NLRED simulation in NS-2 "Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1"

To simulate NLRED, you just need to include the following command in TCL Script:

Queue/RED set nonlinear_ 1 

Rest all commands remain same as explained in "Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1".

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

Related Blogs:
1. Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1
2. Refined Adaptive RED (Re-ARED or RARED) patch for NS-2

Random Early Detection (RED) in NS-2 - TCL - Part 1

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Random Early Detection (RED) proposed by S. Floyd and V. Jacobson in 1993 is one of the widely deployed Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanisms. The performance of RED highly depends on the appropriate setting of atleast four parameters namely:

1. Minimum threshold
2. Maximum threshold
3. Exponential weighted moving average constant
4. Maximum drop probability

Setting appropriate values for these parameters is considered as a challenging issue and hence in 1999 S. Floyd proposed Gentle variant of RED. Later in 2001, S. Floyd proposed Adaptive RED which automatically sets all these parameters based on the network conditions.

In NS-2, the default RED which is active is Gentle RED + Adaptive RED. To simulate the Original RED proposed in 1993 by S. Floyd (because still there are several researchers who aim to address the parameter sensitivity of Original RED), following commands must be used in the TCL Script before configuring a router with RED queue:

Queue/RED set thresh_ 5
Queue/RED set maxthresh_ 15
Queue/RED set q_weight_ 0.001
Queue/RED set cur_max_p_ 0.5
Queue/RED set bytes_ false
Queue/RED set queue_in_bytes_ false
Queue/RED set gentle_ false
Queue/RED set mean_pktsize_ 1000

Note that the values used in the above commands are taken from the Original paper of RED (See References). You need to change them as per your requirements!

thresh_ = minimum threshold

maxthresh_ = maximum threshold

q_weight_ = exponential weighted moving average constant

cur_max_p_ = maximum drop probability

bytes_ and queue_in_bytes_ = indicate calculations of average queue size in bytes. Setting them to false indicates average queue size will be calculated in packets (not in bytes).

gentle_ = Gentle RED mode. Setting it false indicates Gentle mode is OFF

mean_pktsize_ = average size of a packet arriving at the router

Setting RED in Wired Networks:

Sample command is:

$ns duplex-link $n0 $n2 10Mb 10ms RED

Setting RED in Wireless Networks:

Sample command is:

set val(ifq)    Queue/RED

Gentle RED Settings in NS-2:

To enable Gentle RED option, the only change required is:

Queue/RED set gentle_ true

Rest all commands and syntax for Gentle RED are exactly same as mentioned above for Original RED.

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Mohit P. Tahiliani

References: S. Floyd and V. Jacobson, "Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1, 397-413.

Related Blogs:
1. Nonlinear RED (NLRED) patch for NS-2
2. Refined Adaptive RED (Re-ARED or RARED) patch for NS-2
3. TCL Script Generator
4. TCL Script Generator centered on NSG

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